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Aquatic Lifesaving |水上救生

温习一下你的救生技巧,准备去帮助一个在湖中或游泳池里挣扎的落水者。
    第一步:直视离你最近的那个人的眼睛,严肃地要求他拨打110。
    假如你面对的是一个在湖水或游泳池里挣扎但仍有意识的溺水者,请记住以下规则:
    先投物后下水。始终牢记,在下水前先投下某个可漂浮的物体——任何能漂浮的东西都行。附近有无营救器材?有的话就扔下去。有空的冷藏箱吗?有就扔下去。自己跳水只能作为最后的手段。
    在帮助一名仍有意识的溺水者时,你的责任就是让受害者平静下来,并帮助他浮起来,哪怕这意味着用一件T恤把他拽到岸上。
    如果营救对象是一个在泳池里丧失意识的人,你必须立刻跳入水中,尝试通过身体接触来营救他。
    在本页的虚拟场景中,营救人员判断那个失去了意识的溺水者并未遭受脊柱损伤。在要求一名旁观者拨打110后,他决定借助一个助浮物来实施双腋拖曳。一旦到达泳池边,他就动员一个帮手将溺水者垂直拉出水面。切记:一定要请专业医务人员对溺水者进行检查,即便他恢复了意识、看起来好像没有大碍。
伸手,投物,划靠,入水。即使在营救中必须迅速行动,你也必须做到头脑先行。记住以下营救方法的顺序:伸手(如果溺水者还有意识且靠近水边),投物(把漂浮器材扔向挣扎中的泳者),划靠(如果你在船上),入水(如果你能轻易地游向溺水者)。
伸手施救法
    何时使用:如果溺水者仍有意识,且靠近泳池边或离码头较近。
    如何做:卧倒,伸出一只手或腿,把溺水者拉回岸边。不要站立,因为溺水者的重量可使一个准备不足的营救者栽入水中。如果你够不着溺水者的话,则可使用任何现有的物件,比如杆子,划桨或衬衣。
投物施救法
    何时使用:如果落水者仍有意识,但是你的手够不着或用于施救的物件也够不着他的话。
如何做:把助浮物投给溺水者,最好是一端有绳与你相连,这样你可以把他拉上来。在寻找助浮物同时要留意溺水者,这样如果他沉入水下你可以跟踪他的位置。
划靠施救法
何时使用:如果用投物施救法仍够不着溺水者的话用此方法。划靠施救通常比在水中游向溺水者更快更安全。在船上可就地实施人工呼吸(或称CPR),而不必把溺水者拽回岸边再进行。
如何做:当靠近溺水者时,抛给他一个供个人使用的漂浮器材或者把一只划桨伸过去。始终留意溺水者,以防他沉入水中。

Be prepared to help a struggling swimmer at the lake or at the pool by brushing up on2 your lifesaving skills.
  First step: Look the closest person to you in the eye and sternly instruct him to call 110.
  If you’re faced with a conscious, struggling swimmer in a pond or lake, remember the rule:
  Throw before you go. Always try to throw anything that floats—and we mean anything— before heading into the water. Is there a rescue3 device nearby? Throw it. An empty cooler? Throw it. Jump into the water yourself only as a last resort4.
When assisting a conscious swimmer, your role is to calm the victim and provide flotation5 help, even if that means dragging him to shore with a T-shirt.
If you’re dealing with an unconscious individual in a pool, you’ll have to head straight into the water and attempt a contact rescue.
In the fictional6 scenario on this page, the rescuer has determined that the unconscious victim does not have a spinal7 injury. After instructing a bystander8 to call 110, he makes the decision to perform a double armpit9 tow10 with the help of a flotation aid. Once he reaches the edge of the pool, he recruits11 a helper to perform a vertical lift of the victim. Remember: Always have a near-drowning victim checked by a medical professional, even if he regains consciousness and appears to be O.K.
Reach, Throw, Row, Go. Even though you must act quickly in a rescue situation, you also must think before you act. Remember the order of rescue methods: reach (if the victim is conscious and close to the water’s edge), throw (a flotation device to a struggling swimmer), row (if you’re on a boat in the water) and go (if you can easily swim to the victim).
Reaching Rescue
When to Use It: If the victim is conscious and is close to the edge of the pool or near a dock.
  What to Do: Lie down, extend a hand or leg and pull the victim to the side. Do not stand up, as the weight from the victim can topple12 an unprepared rescuer. If the victim is beyond your reach, use any available object such as a pole, paddle13 or shirt.
Throwing Rescue
When to Use It: If a conscious victim is beyond your reach and beyond the reach of any object that can be used to extend your reach.
What to Do: Throw the victim an aid, preferably14 one with a line attached15 so you can pull him in. While searching for an aid, keep one eye on the victim so you can track him if he goes under.
Rowing Rescue
When to Use It: If the victim is beyond the reach of a throwing rescue. A boat rescue is usually faster and safer than swimming out to a victim. The boat can provide a spot for rescue breathing or CPR16 without having to drag the victim all the way back to the shore.
What to Do: As you approach the victim, throw him a personal flotation device or reach to him with an oar. Always keep your eyes on the victim in case he goes under.
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1. aquatic adj. 水上的,水中的
2. brush up on 复习;练习
3. rescue v. 营救,救援
4. resort  n. 手段,对策
5. flotation  n. 漂浮
6. fictional adj. 虚构的,小说式的
7. spinal  adj. 脊柱的
8. bystander  n. 旁观者
9. armpit  n. 腋窝
10. tow n. 拖,拽
11. recruit v. 劝说;招募
12. topple v. 倒下,倒塌
13. paddle n. 船桨
14. preferably  adv. 更可取地,宁可
15. attach  v. 系,缚
16. CPR 心肺复苏
17. pinpoint  v. 精确定位
18. reevaluate  v. 重新评估
19. escort  v. 护送